Draize eye-irritancy test by Janice C. Swanson Download PDF EPUB FB2
The Draize Eye Irritancy Test. This paper discusses the harmful and fatal use of non-human animals, particularly rabbits, in the Draize eye irritancy test. It argues and demonstrates that such use is not scientifically valid if the results are applied to human beings. Genre/Form: Bibliography: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Swanson, Janice C.
Draize eye-irritancy test. Beltsville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Get this from a library. The Draize eye-irritancy test. [Janice C Swanson; National Agricultural Library (U.S.)].
The Draize rabbit eye and skin irritancy tests have been used for 60 years to attempt to predict the human ocular and dermal irritation of such products. The Draize test has been the standard for ocular and dermal safety assessments for decades.
However, several aspects of the test Cited by: the application of a test substance to the anterior surface of the eye of rabbits, which are followed for reversibility for 21 days after application (OECD Test Guidelinein vivo) (OECD, a), also known as the Draize rabbit eye test.
Draize eye irritation pre - sents one of the most criticized and contested animal tests still in use Size: 1MB. 1 1 DRAFT GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS 2 Vitrigel-Eye Irritancy Test Method for Identifying Chemicals Not Requiring Classification and 3 Labelling for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage 4 5 INTRODUCTION 6 7 1.
Serious eye damage refers to the production of tissue damage in the eye or serious physical 8 decay of vision that follows application of a test chemical to the anterior File Size: KB.
The Draize test is an acute ocular toxicity test devised in to provide a method for assessing the irritation potential of materials that might accidentally come in contact with human eyes, such as household and office products, agricultural or environmental chemicals, and volatile organic compounds.
Because of the widespread acceptance of this method, it was later adopted for testing eye care. The Draize eye test involves an assessment of signs of two major reactions: toxicity and inflammation. External observation is limited to judging only certain aspects of these reactions and cannot ascertain the underlying mechanisms.
Furthermore, direct contact with the outer eye may produce not only toxic injury and reactive inflammation but also discomfort, delayed allergy, structural alterations, various Cited by: 3T3-NRU assay has been proposed Draize eye-irritancy test book a potential replacement alternative for the Draize Eye irritation test.
This test is a short-term test system based on a monolayer culture of 3T3 cells with cytotoxicity used as the endpoint for eye irritancy evaluation of test by: 6.
The Draize eye test was created and refined for humanitarian reasons and has assuredly prevented harm. Its destiny is to be progressively supplanted as in vitro and clinical alternatives emerge.
Author(s): Buyukmihci, NC | Abstract: This paper discusses the harmful and fatal use of non-human animals, particularly rabbits, in the Draize eye irritancy test.
It argues and demonstrates that such use is not scientifically valid if the results are applied to human beings. Moreover, not only can this test result in extreme suffering (and death at the end) for non-human beings, dependence on Author: NC Buyukmihci.
The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test devised in by Food and Drug Administration toxicologists John H. Draize and Jacob M. Spines. Initially used for testing cosmetics, the procedure involves applying mL or g of a test substance to the eye or skin of a restrained, conscious animal, and then leaving it for set amount of time before rinsing it out and recording its effects.
The animals are observed for up Purpose: test cosmetics(allergic/toxic reaction). The Draize rabbit eye and skin irritancy tests have been used for 60 years to attempt to predict the human ocular and dermal irritation of such products. The Draize test Cited by: Eye irritancy – Draize test.
The Draize test measures the eye irritancy of chemical and other products by dropping concentrated amounts of a test substance into an animal’s eye (often rabbits) and then assessing the eye’s reactions using a subjective numerical score to indicate the level of eye damage and injury (e.g.
the degree of swelling, redness, ulcerations etc). The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test devised in by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicologists John H.
Draize and Jacob M. Spines. The current Draize eye irritation test evaluates the changes observed in three tissues of the eye: the cornea, the conjunctiva, and the : Bushra Shamim.
The historical antecedent for the eye irritation testing guidelines recently published by both the OECD and the IRLG is the Draize test, developed by Draize, Woodard, and Calvery in From toa modified Draize test has been specified by the Federal Hazard- ous Substances Act as the preferred method for eye irritation testing.
Justification of the enucleated eye test with eyes of slaughterhouse animals as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test with rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol. Jan; 31 (1)– [Google Scholar] Gautheron P, Dukic M, Alix D, Sina JF.
Bovine corneal opacity and permeability test: an in vitro assay of ocular irritancy. Fundam Appl by: BeforeDraize in vivo rabbit irritation test developed inhas been only officially accepted test method by OECD (2). Draize rabbit test procedure is composed of forced application of test substance to the eye or skin of a non-anesthetized rabbit in a restrainer and subsequent scor-Cited by: The Draize eye irritancy test: "It has not been possible for us to use the results of rabbit studies to predict accurately the actual irritation that might occur in humans after accidental exposure." Procter & Gamble scientists, Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.vol.
6, The Draize rabbit eye test (Draize et al., ) is the only widely used assay for the effect of substances on the view of the scientific, ethical, and economic concerns over the Draize test (Wilhelmus, ), it is not surprising that alternatives to the Draize test have been examined and that various calculation procedures have been by: The Draize test uses rabbits because they are inexpensive, have large eyes, and are easy to handle.
However, the rabbit is an inappropriate and inaccurate model for human ocular damage. The following are some of the fundamental anatomical differences between the rabbit and human eyelid, tearing mechanism, and cornea: Draize Test Eye Irritancy Test The Draize Test is one of the most common type of cosmetic testing.
This test is named after the scientist, John Draize, in For this test, albino rabbits are used since their skin is much more sensitive. The Draize test is an acute toxicity test devised in to test for irritancy in cosmetics, but subsequently became the most common method for assessing skin and eye irritancy in pharmaceuticals.
It has remained the traditional test for over seven decades, despite scientific studies for the last 40 years showing deficiencies with Draize in. The Vitrigel-Eye Irritancy Test (EIT) method is an in vitro test method that allows the identification of test chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage.
This test measures the eye irritation potential of a test chemical based on its ability to induce damage to the barrier function of the human corneal epithelium (hCE) models used in the.
Despite the availability of more modern, humane, and effective alternatives, rabbits are still tormented in the notorious Draize eye irritancy test, in which cosmetics, dishwashing liquid, drain cleaner, and other substances are dripped into the animals’ eyes, often causing redness, swelling, discharge, ulceration, hemorrhaging, cloudiness, or blindness.
The Draize skin test doesn't fare much better. This is because the anatomy and cellular makeup of skin varies among different species; therefore, responses to products vary between the species.
Indeed, the rabbit is now considered a notoriously poor predictor of human irritation : Monica Engebretson. Discussion of alternatives to the draize eye irritancy test / By. Prior, M. Yee, D. Alberta Environmental Centre. Publication Details. Vegreville, Alta.:Alberta Environmental Centre, If you are generating a PDF of a journal article or book chapter, please feel free to enter the title and author information.
The information you Author: M. Prior, D. Yee. The Draize test is used to measure irritation or corrosion caused to the eye or skin, but it is notoriously unreliable, producing highly variable results. It is also extremely unpleasant and painful, causing eye reddening, swelling, ulceration, even blindness, or skin cracking and bleeding.
Furthermore, to clarify the histological and immunohistological damage of HCE models after exposing test chemicals, we selected glycerol, toluene, and n-hexanol as test chemicals that were classified into “Not classified (NC)” and “an eye irritant Category 2A (2A)” by GHS and were scored “,” “,” and “” by Draize Cited by: This Test Guideline is intended preferably for use with albino rabbit.
The test substance is applied in a single dose in the conjunctival sac of one eye of each animal. The other eye, which remains untreated, serves as a control. The initial test uses an animal; the dose level depends on the test substance nature.
Testing Household Products on Animals. Animals in laboratories are experimented on for testing household products. Cleaning products for ovens, baths, dishwashers, toilets and carpets. Detergents, stain removers, toilet blocks, paints, glues, polish for furniture, cars and even shoes.
Highly invasive animal based test procedures for risk assessment such as the Draize eye test are under increasing criticism due to poor transferability for the human organism and animal-welfare Author: C.
Lotz, L. Kiesewetter, F. F. Schmid, J. Hansmann, H. Walles, F. Groeber-Becker. AbstractThe cosmetics industry is the target of criticism from animal welfare and animal rights groups for its use of the Draize eye irritancy test to substantiate the safety of cosmetic ingredients and products.
To date, the two main difficulties in the development of alternatives to the Draize test have been a lack of high correlation between in vitro alternative test results and in vivo Cited by: